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Probability Sampling

Probability Sampling – Role of This Technique in Quantitative Research

by Scarlett Watson

Every person in the population has a possibility of getting chosen when using probability sampling. Most often, it is utilised in quantitative research. This technique is the most sensible option if you want to generate findings that are representative of the entire population. Probability sampling has a crucial significance in quantitative research. Quantitative research intends to generalise the study results from the analysed samples, and therefore it relies on probability sampling because the technique helps them select a sample representative of the entire population. This article will discuss the role and importance of probability sampling in quantitative research.

What is Probability sampling?

Using an approach based on probability theory, the researcher selects samples from a broader population using the probability sampling methodology. The most important prerequisite is that each member of your population has an equal and higher chance of being chosen.

What are the different types of probability sampling?

Simple Random Sampling

Simple random sampling is a totally arbitrary technique for choosing the sample. This sampling technique is as simple as giving each person a number and then selecting at random through an automatic procedure from those numbers. Ultimately, the members of the sample are the numbers that were selected. In this sampling technique, the researchers choose the samples using either the lottery system or a random number generator. This sampling method typically works with a sizable population and has both benefits and drawbacks.

Stratified Random Sampling

Using stratified random sampling, the researcher separates a larger population into more manageable groups that often do not intersect but yet accurately reflect the overall population. Researchers create these groups before sampling and then independently take a sample from each group. It requires organising or categorising by sex, age, ethnicity, and other factors. Researchers divide the topics into mutually exclusive groups and then select individuals from each category by simple random sampling. Members of these groups should be diverse from one another to ensure that each group member has an equal chance of being chosen using basic probability.

Random Cluster Sampling

Although each subset should share traits with the entire sample, cluster sampling also requires segmenting the population into smaller groups. You choose whole sections randomly rather than taking samples of individuals from each category. You can also include every member of every sampled cluster.

Although this strategy is effective for handling big and scattered populations, there is a higher chance of mistakes in the sample due to the possibility of significant differences between groups. It is challenging to ensure that the sampled clusters accurately reflect the entire population.

Systematic Sampling

Nearly identical to simple random sampling, systematic sampling is generally a little bit simpler to carry out. Every person in the population has a number assigned to them; however, rather than assigning numbers randomly, people are selected at set intervals. It is crucial to check the database for any latent anomalies that could bias the sample if you employ this strategy.

What is the role and importance of Probability sampling in Quantitative Research?

Probability sampling is crucial in quantitative research because quantitative research seeks to generalise the study’s results. Generalizability is the notion that a study’s findings will have some application to a population larger than the sample from which they were drawn. A fundamental rule of probability sampling is that all components of the researcher’s sample size have an equal probability of being selected for involvement in the study to achieve generalizability. It is the idea behind random selection in quantitative research. The people from the sample size who are chosen to join the sample are chosen by the researchers using a random number generator. Using probability sampling to select a representative sample is difficult for novice researchers, but they can always ask for help. If you need help selecting the sample size using probability sampling for your quantitative research, you can always reach out to experts at PhD Dissertation Help.

Helps Identify the Sampling Error

Quantitative research is based on the falsification theory. Falsification theory entails that a theory or generalisation generated must have empirical components that can be falsified through rigorous testing. Quantitative research never claims anything with certainty. But instead, there are probable conclusions because it uses an inductive approach.

Your sample may not be flawless even if you use random selection. There is no ideal sample. A researcher can only produce ideal results if they include every member of the target population in the sample, violating the sampling objective. There is always some mistake when extrapolating from a sample to the entire population. Quantitative research involves considering the sampling error and minimising it as much as possible, which is only possible through probability sampling. Sampling error refers to the statistical computation of the discrepancy between findings from a sample and the actual attributes of a population.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of probability sampling?


  • The sample reflects the population, and there is no bias resulting from the researcher’s preconceptions.
  • You can compute the standard error to generate credibility estimates for the parameter.
  • The total error can be minimised while saving time and money by optimising the probability sampling
  • Probability sampling methods are significantly simpler to conduct since there is a systematic process to execute. Conversely, when using non-probability sampling techniques, the researcher must carefully choose whether or not to include a given component in the sample.


  • The sample may not reflect the total population if the sample size is too small, which could result in inaccurate findings.
  • No probability sampling technique can completely remove sampling error. Only a thorough count can provide absolute confirmation which is impossible to achieve because you cannot possibly count every member of the population as an individual researcher.


Probability sampling is a useful sampling strategy in quantitative research since there is a higher chance of the chosen sample being representative of the entire population. It helps the researchers extrapolate the findings to general populations and provide deep insights into a specific population.

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