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Everything You Need To Know About the Appalachian Mountains

Appalachian Mountains- Childhood Memories

by Senior Editor

The Appalachian Mountains are a vast mountain range situated in North America. It lies mostly in the United States and partly in Canada. Its valleys, hills, ridges, and peaks form a belt extending more than 2000 miles. The mountains have been of crucial importance in the economic development and history of the US. They were a barrier for the early-existing Atlantic coast colonies before they developed the strength and unity to form a nation and fight for independence.

The Appalachian Mountains were also recognized for their industrial development, producing coal, gas, iron, oil, stone, and timber. The forested mountains also offer scenic beauty, facilitating winter and summer sports for hikers and motorists. Continue reading this blog to learn about the physical characteristics, history, and economy of the Appalachian Mountains.

Physical Characteristics

The Appalachian Mountains comprise three regions, i.e., southern, central, and northern Appalachia. They also feature several caves in areas where soft limestone is in abundance.

The Great Appalachian Valley is another distinctive feature of the Appalachian Mountains. Since pioneer times, this valley system is the main path through the mountains. It includes the Shenandoah, Cumberland, Tennessee, and Kittatinny valleys in the US and the St. Lawrence River valley in Canada.


The Appalachian Mountains are one of the oldest mountain ranges in the world. Sculpted by glacial ice and ceaseless water action on the surface, this mountain range came into being due to the earth’s powerful upheaval within the crust. The sedimentary and ancient crystalline rocks are the main types of rocks that form the Appalachian Mountains.

The ancient crystalline rocks date back to 540 million years ago when violent eruptions changed the exiting rocks into metamorphic rocks due to great pressure and heat. Some 250 million years ago, the Appalachian Mountains underwent a geological revolution, resulting in the collision of two plates in the Earth’s outer layer. The Appalachia sank as a result and formed folds and thrust faults, creating the first Appalachian Mountains.


The Appalachian Mountains extend to far south and north and, thus, have a variety of temperatures. Arctic conditions often prevail in the Canadian region, whereas haze, heavy clouds, and milder weather are more common in the southern region.

The Appalachian Mountains receive an average rainfall of 69 inches annually. These ranges are also subjected to heavy snowfalls every year.

Flora and Fauna

Before the arrival of the European settlers, the Appalachian Mountains were covered with forests. While these forests are now much smaller, they are still visually appealing in the south. Some of the world’s most broad-leaved trees and extensive forests are found in Appalachia.

The northern region consists of white and red oak, birch, ash, beech, buckeye, and sugar maple hardwoods, whereas the south comprises sycamore, walnut, poplar, and hickory. Overall, the Appalachian Mountains consist of a total of 140 tree species in the southern region. Many shrubs and flowering plants also grow in the Appalachian Mountains, contributing to 2000 different types of flora.

The Appalachian Mountains are also home to a large variety of animals, including wild turkeys, hawks, wild boars, black bears, deer, raccoons, beavers, and several other small animals. Elk, moose, and caribou are also found in the north.


The Native Americans occupied the northern region of the Appalachian Mountains before the Europeans arrived. By the middle of the 19th century, the US government eradicated the land through warfare. Later on, the Scotch-Irish and Germans replaced the Native Americans in central Appalachia.

In the south, people lived in small, isolated communities separated from the outside world by ridges and hills. By the early 20th century, these settlers developed their own distinctive music and culture.

The Appalachian Mountains have many resources. For example, eastern Appalachia features fertile farmlands, whereas the south consists of more cotton produce. On the other hand, fruits and tobacco are the major crops in the far northern region of the Appalachian Mountains.


The Appalachian Mountains offer scenic beauty and natural resources to anyone who lives there. Consider reading “The Appalachian Mountains- Childhood Memories,” written by Mary E. Johnson if you wish to learn what living in the mountains is like as viewed from the eyes of a little girl.  The Appalachian Mountains- Childhood Memories is an epic read that is going to take you on a literary adventure in no time! Grab your copies today!

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